The Future of Free Speech Conference

15th December 2022, Danish Parliament – Fællessalen, Copenhagen 

Justitia cordially invites you to take part in its upcoming conference on the future of free speech, which will mark the closing of phase 1 of the Future of Free Speech project. Participation is possible both online and in person.  

Free speech is the bulwark of liberty; without it, no free and democratic society has ever been established or thrived. Free expression has been the basis of unprecedented scientific, social and political progress that has benefitted individuals, communities, nations and humanity itself. Millions of people derive protection, knowledge and essential meaning from the right to challenge power, question orthodoxy, expose corruption and address oppression, bigotry and hatred.

At the “Future of Free Speech,” we believe that a robust and resilient culture of free speech must be the foundation for the future of any free, democratic society. We believe that, even as rapid technological change brings new challenges and threats, free speech must continue to serve as an essential ideal and a fundamental right for all people, regardless of race, ethnicity, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, gender or social standing.

However, free speech has been on global decline for more than a decade. Left unchecked, this deterioration of free speech threatens individual freedom, civil society and democratic institutions as well as progress in science and philosophy. There are many reasons for the global decline in free speech, including the rise of authoritarianism on all continents. Even in open societies, the democratization and virality of online speech are increasingly seen as a threat rather than a precondition for well-functioning, free, tolerant and pluralist societies. Threats – both real and imagined – from hate speech, extremism, terrorism and disinformation have led to calls for stricter regulation of speech from both authoritarian and democratic governments, social media companies, individuals, and NGOs. To mention just one example, the recent coronavirus has led not only to a global public health emergency but also to a global censorship pandemic, as many governments scramble to suppress misinformation, while others have used the opportunity to grab even more power over both the press and online opinions. Such measures put both the value of and the right to free speech under pressure but also challenge defenders of free speech to re-examine, update and upgrade the arguments for why free speech matters. Historical lessons are crucial to understanding the value of free speech, but in a digital age, in which propaganda and disinformation can travel the globe in seconds, it is no longer enough to rely solely on tried and tested free speech arguments from previous eras.

In light of the above, our conference will bring together experts from tech companies, civil society, International organizations and academia to discuss burning questions about the future of free speech. To this end, we will look at global developments from around the globe explained, followed by a panel with a focus on online speech and the future of content moderation online.

The Project: The Future of Free Speech is a collaboration between Copenhagen-based judicial think tank Justitia, Columbia University’s Global Freedom of Expression and Aarhus University’s Department of Political Science. Through our project, we have brought an evidence-based approach to the burning questions raised by the principles and practices of free speech in an interconnected digital world 

Watch the video of the conference here:

Watch the video of the conference here:

Opening Remarks and discussions:

Jacob Mchangama – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Monica Bickert- The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Anastasia Garina – Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference December 2022

Opening remarks – Panel – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Free Speech: Global Developments

Eric Heinze – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Ourveena Geereesha Topsy Sonoo – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Stock Taking: Challenges, Synergies and the Way Forward – Extreme Speech Online

Joan Barata – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Nighat Dad – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Kerem Altiparmak – The Future of Free Speech – Copenhagen Conference – December 2022

Stock Taking: Challenges, Synergies and the Way Forward – Extreme Speech Online




Jacob Mchangama | Founder and Executive Director, Justitia

Jacob Mchangama is the founder and executive director of Justitia, a think tank focusing on human rights and a former Visiting Scholar at Columbia Global Freedom of Expression. He is a Senior Fellow at the Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression, member of the Forum on Information and Democracy’s Steering Committee for the working group on network accountability regimes, the Danish government’s independent Free Speech Commission, and a member of the steering committee of the World Expression Forum. Jacob has commented extensively on free speech and human rights in the media and academic journals including the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal, The Economist, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Human Rights Quarterly and The Journal of Free Speech Law. He is the author of several books most recently the critically acclaimed “Free Speech: A History From Socrates to Social Media” (2022), and the writer and host of the podcast “Clear and Present Danger: A History of Free Speech”.


Anastasia Garina

Anastasia graduated from the Faculty of Law of Moscow State University.  She holds a Master of Laws and specializes in criminal law. She has been working in the field of human rights since 2015 and collaborated with the Russian Committee against Torture, where she headed the Moscow office, and with Simul LGBT+ initiative group.  Currently she is the Executive Director of HRDC Memorial.

Monika Bickert | Vice President of Content Policy at Meta

Monika Bickert is Meta’s Vice President for Content Policy. Her global team manages the policies for what types of content can be shared on Meta platforms and how advertisers and others can interact with the site. Monika joined Facebook in 2012 as lead security counsel, advising the company on matters including child safety and data security. She assumed her current role in 2013. Earlier in her career, Monika served as Resident Legal Advisor at the U.S. Embassy in Bangkok, Thailand, where she specialized in Southeast Asian rule of law development and response to child exploitation and human trafficking. She also served as Assistant United States Attorney for 11 years in Washington, DC, and Chicago, prosecuting federal crimes ranging from public corruption to gang-related violence. Monika received a B.A. from Rice University and a J.D. from Harvard Law School.

Read abstract from Monika Bickert

Galina Arapova | Director, Mass Media Defence Centre

Galina Arapova is a media lawyer working in the field of freedom of expression and freedom of information in Russia since 1996. She is director and senior media lawyer at the Mass Media Defence Centre (Russia), a prominent NGO working on the freedom of expression and media protection. Galina has extensive experience in consulting Russian and international media as well as defending media outlets and journalists before domestic courts and the European Court of Human Rights.  Before national courts, she defended hundreds of Russian media outlets and journalists including Novaya gazeta, Kommersant daily and international ones like The New Times, Deutsche Welle, Radio Liberty and more. Galina Arapova was awarded a number of media freedom awards, such as the special Freedom of Expression protection award by the Russian Union of Journalists and Anna Politkovskaya freedom of media prize “Camerton” for courage in media defence.  She is a 2016 winner of “Human Right Award for Outstanding Contribution by a Legal Practitioner to Human Rights” awarded by the International Bar Association. Russian authorities designated the Mass Media Defence Centre as a foreign agent NGO. MMDC’s case before the European court is pending. In October 2021, Galina Arapova was the first Russian lawyer who was designated by Russian authorities as an (individual) foreign agent.  

(Wikipedia page in Russian)

Eric Heinze | Queen Mary University of London, London

Eric Heinze (Maitrise distinction, U. Paris; J.D. cum laude, Harvard; PhD cum laude, Leiden) became Professor of Law & Humanities at the University of London after publishing his first book entitled Sexual Orientation: A Human Right.  He is currently serving as General Rapporteur on the Criminalization of Hate Speech for the Académie internationale de droit compare and was previously the Project Leader for the four-nation EU consortium Memory Laws in European and Comparative Perspectives (2016-19). He has been a Fulbright Fellow (Utrecht), DAAD fellow (Berlin), and Chateaubriand Fellow (Paris), as well as holding grants from the UK Nuffield Foundation and from Harvard University. Heinze has published eight books and has authored or been interviewed for over 150 scholarly and media pieces.  His two most recent books are about free speech including The Most Human Right: Why Free Speech is Everything published this past April with The MIT Press, and Hate Speech and Democratic Citizenship published in 2016 with Oxford University Press. He has advised several inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, including Amnesty International and the International Commission of Jurists.

Read abstract by Eric Heinze


Ourveena Geereesha Topsy-Sonoo

Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information in Africa, African Commission on Human and People’s Rights

Nighat Dad

Nighat Dad is a Pakistani lawyer and the founder of Digital Rights Foundation, a charity organisation focused on cyber harassment, data protection and free speech online in Pakistan and South Asia. As a feminist and pioneer for women’s rights activism in Pakistan, Dad has raised awareness of Pakistani patriarchy and illuminated her own experience as a women engaged in digital rights activism. She is also an inaugural member of the Oversight Board, which since 2020 has been working to better protect freedom of expression on Meta’s platforms by making principled, independent decisions about important pieces of content. Her accomplishments include being named a Next Generation Leader by Time Magazine in 2015, the Dutch Human Rights Tulip Award in 2016.

Joan Barata | Stanford Cyber Policy Center

Joan Barata works on freedom of expression, media regulation, and intermediary liability issues. He is currently a Fellow of the Program on Platform Regulation at the Stanford Cyber Policy Center. He has published a large number of articles and books on these subjects, both in academic and popular press. His work has taken him in most regions of the world, and he is regularly involved in projects with international organizations such as UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States or the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, where was the principal advisor to the Representative on Media Freedom. Joan Barata also has experience as a regulator, as he held the position of Secretary General of the Audiovisual Council of Catalonia in Spain and was member of the Permanent Secretariat of the Mediterranean Network of Regulatory Authorities.

Read abstract by Joan Barata

Kerem Altiparmak| Co-Founder Freedom of Expression Association İFÖD – İfade Özgürlüğü Derneği

Kerem Altiparmak is amongst the founders of Freedom of Expression Association. He is currently legal consultant to International Commission of Jurists and the former Chair of Human Rights Centre at the Ankara Bar Association. He was the Director of the Human Rights Centre of the Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences until October 2017. He has also worked in a number of human rights projects with human rights NGOs in Turkey. Amongst them are the Monitoring of the Implementation of the ECtHR Judgments in Turkey, From Impunity to Accountability with the Human Rights Joint Platform. He also worked with Prof. Yaman Akdeniz (İstanbul Bilgi University) in a number of freedom of expression projects. Their Project, entitled Democratization and Internet Freedom Programme in Turkey included training of lawyers, setting up law clinics and provision of support for digital activists and members of civil society organizations in exercising their rights to freedom of expression, assembly, and association in Turkey. He has also provided legal assistance to a number of people including human rights defenders, journalists and politicians in their cases both at domestic and international courts. Mr. Altıparmak along with Mr. Akdeniz have also made successful appeals to the Turkish Constitutional Court to get Youtube and Twitter bans lifted in 2014 and they won another case in 2015 before the ECtHR after Turkey banned access to Youtube. Their fight against Internet censorship in Turkey is ongoing at different judicial authorities. Further, he won the Turkish Publishers Association Award (2014), Halit Çelenk Legal Prize (2015), Columbia Global Freedom of Expression Award (2016) and Press Association of Turkey Press Freedom Prize (2016). He was also the recipient of Franco-German Prize for Human Rights & the Rule of Law in 2017.

Read abstract by Kerem Altiparmark


The conference was made possible with the generous support of:

And with support from: